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Reading and Writing Rocks Yellow / Lesson 10: Review One Yellow Language Arts

Review One Yellow Unit 4 Language Arts
Using Pronouns


  • A pronoun is a word that takes the place of one or more nouns.

  • We use pronouns to avoid repeating words.

  • The word that the pronoun replaces is called the antecedent.

  • A singular pronoun replaces a singular noun.

  • The words: I, me, you, he, she, him, her and it are singular pronouns---always capitalize the pronoun I.


Using Pronouns


  • A plural pronoun replaces a plural noun.

  • The words: we, you, they, us, and them are plural pronoun

  • 1. The traveler thought he should go to the city. He takes the place of traveler: so in this example, He is the pronoun and traveler is the antecedent.

  • 2. The campers searched for a place they could spend the night. They takes the place of the campers: so in this example, They is the pronoun and campers is the antecedent.


Using Pronouns


  • A subject pronoun takes the place of one or more nouns in the subject of a sentence.

  • The words I, you, he, she, it, we, and they are subject pronouns.

  • The subject comes before the verb.

  • Example: We do not like spiders.---We is the pronoun which comes before the word, like-which is the verb---so We is a subject pronoun

  • Example:You can hold the spider.-You is the pronoun which comes before the word, hold-which is the verb-so You is a subject pronoun.


Using Pronouns


  • An object pronoun follows an action verb such as: see or tell or it follows these words: about, at, far, from, near, of, to, or with-----but these words are not pronouns-just remember that object pronouns follow these words!!

  • The object pronouns that follow are: me, you, him, her it, us and them.

  • Use I and we as subject pronouns

  • Use me and us as object pronouns


Verbs


  • Verbs are a necessary components of all sentences. Verbs have two important functions: Some verbs put static objects into motion while other verbs help to clarify static objects in meaningful ways.

  • A verb tells of an action or state of being.


Verbs


  • An action verb tells that something is happening, has happened, or will happen.

  • Examples:
    Christy listens.
    The Patriots lost.

  • If you are unsure whether a sentence contains an action verb or not, look at every word in the sentence and ask yourself, "Is this something that a person or thing can do?"


Verbs


  • Action verbs can also be actions you can't see such as: Sue thought about pets. She wanted a puppy.

  • Action verbs are time-telling verbs. They also tell when ? something takes place. Examples: My dog runs faster than yours. (present tense)Yesterday he ran around the block. (past tense) Tomorrow he will run in a race. (future tense)

  • Actions verbs main be used alone as the main verb of a sentence; as in: My kitten fell into the pond. Or the action verb may use a helping verb; as in: If you get too close to the edge, you will fall too.


Verbs


  • Linking verbs do not express action. Instead, they connect the subject of the verb to additional information about the subject.

  • Linking verbs link the subject with some other word or words in the sentence.


Verbs


  • The following verbs are true linking verbs: any form of the verb be [am, is, are, was, were, has been, are being, might have been, etc.], become, and seem. These true linking verbs are always linking verbs.

  • Then you have a list of verbs with multiple personalities: appear, feel, grow, look, prove, remain, smell, sound, taste, and turn. Sometimes these verbs are linking verbs; sometimes they are action verbs. Their function in every individual sentence determines what you call them.


Verbs


  • Linking Verbs:
    be (am, are, is, was, were, been, being) look, feel, taste
    become, became, appear, smell, grow, seem, sound

  • Examples: The call sounded urgent. The assembly is tomorrow.
    My sister and I looked alike. Lynn feels sick.

  • How do you tell when they are action verbs and when they are linking verbs? If you can substitute am, is, or are for the verb and the sentence still sounds logical, you have a linking verb on your hands. If, after the substitution, the sentence makes no sense, you are dealing with an action verb instead.


Capitalization


  1. Capitalize the first word in a sentence.


  • The book is on the table.


Capitalization


  • 2. Capitalize the first word in a direct quotation.

    • He wrote, "Please put the check in the mail.
    • The teacher said to the class, "You may begin."


Capitalization


  • 3. Capitalize names, initials, and titles of people and pets.


  • John Jones
  • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • Professor James
  • Mr. & Mrs. Marvin Smith
  • Albert the cat
  • Skippy the dog


Capitalization


  • 4. Capitalize days of the week and months of the year, but not seasons of the year.

    • Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, etc.
    • January, February, March, April, May, June, etc.
    • Do NOT capitalize: summer, fall, autumn, winter, spring


Capitalization


  • 5. Capitalize the names of streets, cities, countries, and other geographical places.

    • Streets: East Avenue, Second Street, Mission Boulevard, etc.
    • Cities: Hayward, San Francisco, Oakland, New York, etc.
    • Countries: China, Portugal, Mexico, France, Russia, etc.
    • Other: Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic Ocean, Grand Canyon, etc.


Capitalization


  • 6. Capitalize the names of religions and nationalities used as proper nouns or proper adjectives.

    • Catholic, Baptist, Mormon, Jew, Buddhist, etc.
    • Chinese, French, Italian, African-American, etc.
    • She studied the Methodist religion.
    • She celebrates Irish holidays, even though she lives here.


Capitalization


  • 7. Capitalize the names of schools, organizations, and businesses.

    • U.C. Berkeley, Chabot College, Cal State, etc.
    • American Automobile Association, Oakland Symphony, etc.
    • Sons of Norway, Rotary Club, Mothers Against Drunk Drivers, etc.
    • Allstate Insurance, Acme Auto Repair, The Book Place, etc.


Capitalization


  • 8. Capitalize the titles/names of books, magazines, newspapers, musical compositions (songs), and works of art. (Note: Only capitalize a, an, or the if it is the first word of the title.)

    • Books: To Kill a Mockingbird, Cat in the Hat, The Stand, etc.
    • Magazines: People, Time, Rolling Stone, etc.
    • Newspapers: Chronicle, Daily Review, Wall Street Journal, etc.
    • Songs: "Jingle Bells," "America the Beautiful," "Yesterday," etc.
    • Works of art: Mona Lisa, American Gothic, Water Lilies, etc.


Capitalization


  • 9. Capitalize the names of holidays, historical periods, special events, and famous     documents.

    • Holidays: Christmas, Fourth of July, Halloween, etc.
    • Periods: the Dark Ages, the Renaissance, the Great Depression, etc.
    • Events: Homecoming, Winter Ball, Downtown Rally, etc.
    • Documents: Bill of Rights, Declaration of Independence, etc.


Capitalization


  • 10. Capitalize the names of special buildings, airplanes, ships, and planets.

    • Buildings: Empire State Building, the Eiffel Tower, etc.
    • Airplanes: Air Force One, the Enola Gay, etc.
    • Ships: the Arizona, the Queen Mary, the Nautilus, etc.
    • Planets: Mars, Jupiter, Venus, Mercury, Pluto, etc.


Capitalization


  • 11. Capitalize brand names, but not the names of products.

    • Dunlop tires, Crest toothpaste, Surf detergent, Jif peanut butter
    • a Nissan truck, an Apple computer, an Epson printer


Capitalization


  • 12. Capitalize the names of specific courses, but not the names of general school subjects.

    • His courses include Algebra I, Advanced Biology, and Ethnic Studies.
    • His program includes math, science, and history.


Capitalization

 

  • 13. Capitalize the first word, titles, and all nouns in the salutation of a letter. Capitalize only the first word in the closing of a letter.

    Dear Mrs. Johnson,     My dearest Jerome
    Sincerely yours,           Yours truly,
     


Capitalization

 

  • 14. Capitalize the titles of relatives, but not when used with my, his, her, your, etc.  
    • Jill said, " Thanks, Mom and Dad, for everything."
    • Aunt Margaret is my favorite aunt. 
    • My dad is the greatest person on earth.


Other words to capitalize


  • The pronoun /
    The word for a Deity or God