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Reading and Writing Rocks Yellow / Lesson 11: Review  Two Yellow Language Arts

Review Two Yellow Language Arts Unit 4 Part One
Abbreviations


  • An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word.
  • Example: Doctor is Dr.

    Words that are abbreviated are simply abbreviated words.

    If a word was capitalized as a regular word, then it will be capitalized as an abbreviated word.
    Example: Monday= Mon.


Abbreviations


  • Titles before names:
  • Mrs.,= a married woman
  • Mr., = a man
  • Ms.,= a woman who is married or not married
  • Prof., = professor or teacher
  • Dr., =doctor
  • Gen., = general
  • Rep.,=representative
  • Sen.,=senator
  • St. (for Saint)


The Apostrophe=?


  • The apostrophe has three uses:

  • 1) to form possessives of nouns
    2) to show the omission of letters
    3) to indicate certain plurals of lowercase letters.

  • Apostrophes are NOT used for possessive pronouns or for noun plurals, including acronyms.


Use One: Possession


  • Forming possessives of nouns
  • To see if you need to make a possessive, turn the phrase around and make it an "of the..." phrase. For example:
  • the boy's hat = the hat of the boy
  • three days' journey = journey of three days.


Apostrophe not needed


  • If the noun after "of" is a building, an object, or a piece of furniture, then no apostrophe is needed!
  • room of the hotel = hotel room
  • door of the car = car door
  • leg of the table = table leg


Rules for adding apostrophe

 

  • Once you've determined whether you need to make a possessive, follow these rules to create one.
  • add 's to the singular form of the word (even if it ends in -s): the owner's car James's hat
  • add 's to the plural forms that do not end in -s:
    the children's game the geese's honking
  • add ' to the end of plural nouns that end in -s:
    houses' roofs three friends' letters
  • add 's to the end of compound words:
    my brother-in-law's money 
  • add 's to the last noun to show joint possession of an object:
    Todd and Anne's apartment


Apostrophe


  • Showing omission of letters
  • Apostrophes are used in contractions. A contraction is a word (or set of numbers) in which one or more letters (or numbers) have been omitted. The apostrophe shows this omission. Contractions are common in speaking and in informal writing. To use an apostrophe to create a contraction, place an apostrophe where the omitted letter(s) would go.


Examples:


  • don't = do not
  • I'm = I am
  • he'll = he will
  • who's = who is
  • shouldn't = should not
  • didn't = did not
  • could've= could have (NOT "could of"!)
  • '60 = 1960.


Apostrophe


  • Forming plurals of lowercase letters
  • Apostrophes are used to form plurals of letters that appear in lowercase; here the rule appears to be more typographical than grammatical, e.g. "three ps" versus "three p's." To form the plural of a lowercase letter, place 's after the letter. There is no need for apostrophes indicating a plural on capitalized letters, numbers, and symbols (though keep in mind that some editors, teachers, and professors still prefer them).


Semicolon


  • Reason 1. To join independent clauses in compound sentences that do not have coordinating conjunctions (and, or, but, nor, for, so, yet) and commas as connectors. Words like "however," "moreover," "thus," and "therefore," are often used as connectors in these sentences.
  • Reason 2: To separate long or complicated items in a series which already includes commas
  • Reason 3: To separate two long or complex independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction if confusion would result from using a comma


The Colon= : 8 Uses of the Colon


  • 1. After an independent clause that precedes a list.
    2. To separate an explanation, rule, or example from a preceding independent clause.
    3. After the salutation of a business letter.
    4. In the heading of a business memo.


The Colon= : 8 Uses of theColon


  • 5. Between the hour and the minutes
  • 6. Between the chapter and the verse in the Bible, in citations for some literary works, and between the volume and the number of some publications
  • 7. As part of a title.
  • 8. In a bibliography between the place of publication and the name of the publisher.


Review Two Yellow Language Arts Unit 4 Part Two
Sentences


  • Complete Sentences:
  • A complete sentence has a subject and a predicate that work together to make a complete thought.
  • Example: Bobby smiled until he thought his face would crack.
  • A SENTENCE FRAGMENT fails to be a sentence in the sense that it cannot stand by itself.


  • Fragment Sentences may locate something in time and place, but lack a subject-verb relationship.

  • A RUN-ON SENTENCE (sometimes called a fused sentence) has at least two parts, either one of which can stand by itself, but the two parts have been connected together with one or two words instead of becoming two sentences.


  • Remember: The length of a sentence really has nothing to do with whether a sentence is a run-on or not; even a very short sentence could be a run-on.

  • When two clauses are connected by only a comma, they are a run-on sentence that is called a comma-splice.

    • Run-On Sentences happen when an independent clause gives an order or directive based on what was said in the prior independent clause.

    • Run-On Sentences happen when two clauses are connected by words such as however, moreover, nevertheless.


    Subjects & Predicates


    • Every sentence consists of two essential sentence elements, the subject and the predicate.

    • The subject tells us who or what the sentence is about, and the predicate tells us what that subject is doing-or sensing-or is. The most basic part of the predicate is the verb. In fact, sometimes the predicate may consist of only a verb, but it still tells us what the subject is doing.


    Subjects & Predicates


    • The subject is usually a noun (a person, place or thing) or pronoun (words like he, she or they that take the place of a noun).

    • The subject is usually at the beginning of a sentence, before the verb.

    • There may be more than one subject in a sentence.

    • The subject can never be the object of a preposition, words like with, from, under, over, and of.


    Predicates

     

    • Predicates Ask what is the subject doing? Look for a word that shows action.

       

    • Look for common verb endings like -ing or -ed, or if you can add -ing to a word, it is probably a verb.

       

    • The verb usually comes after the subject.

     

    • There may be more than one verb in a sentence.  

     

    • Words like is, was, are, am, was, were, has, have, had, seems (linking verbs) will always be at least part of the verb.


    Simple Sentences


    • Simple Sentence -- One person or thing acts (does something) in some way, or is (has a "state of being") a certain way. One Subject means one thing exists or is done in the sentence.

    • Person or thing = noun = subject of sentence

    • Doing or being = verb = predicate of sentence


    Compound Sentence


    • Compound Sentence -- Two-part sentence. Both parts could be sentences on their own.

    • Each part of the sentence has a subject.

    • Each part of the sentence has a predicate.

    • Each part is called an independent clause


    Complex Sentence


    • Complex Sentence -- Two-part sentence, but only one part can stand alone. The other part modifies the stand-alone part.

    • "Modify" means to change something. Here, it means to give something a different meaning.

    • The part that modifies is called a dependent clause.

    • The part that is modified is the independent clause.


    Sentence Combining


    • Use simple sentences when the idea is direct and... simple.

    • Use compound sentences when two ideas or statements should be brought together.

    • Use complex sentences when one idea or statement is a helper for another idea or statement.