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Discover_our_World_Yellow / Lesson 11: The Civil War

The Civil War

Civil War


  • A Civil War is a war between two groups of citizens of the same country.

  • The American Civil War was the war between 1860-1865 in the United States between the Northern States and the Southern States.

  • The American Civil War was fought to preserve the United States or the Union and to end Slavery.

  • The Southern states fought to make their own decisions apart from the Federal Government, including slavery. The Northern states fought to keep the United States as one nation and to end slavery.


Prelude to the Civil War


  • These Events took place before war broke out: as causes or events that cumulatively led to war.

  • 1. Dred Scott Decision in U.S. Supreme Court-a slave who was denied his freedom-even though he was in a free territory

  • 2. Kansas Nebraska Act 1854-allowed these states to choose if they wanted to have slavery or not

  • 3. John Brown's Raid 1859 in Harper Ferry, VA-----held a building with government weapons hostage until the government would end slavery---it did not work and he was arrested

  • 4. Abraham Lincoln became President---he believed that seceding from the Union was illegal---Lincoln also opposed the spread of slavery

  • 5. The Southern States formed the Confederate Union a new government to secede or drop out of the United States because they wanted to make their own decisions: Especially about Slavery---in the South their cotton economy was dependent on Slavery


Civil War


  • The First Battle of the Civil War was fought at Fort Sumter

  • The Reason for this battle: President Abraham Lincoln promised to control and possess all federal property in the Southern states after they formed the "Confederate Government"---Fort Sumter was a Federal Fort in the Southern State of Charleston, South Carolina---So the Southern states banded together and attacked the fort

  • Result: Union or Northern States surrendered

  • And South had a small victory


Confederate or Southern States Advantages & Leaders


  • The Confederate States fought to make their own state decisions-such as slavery. Also many fought to preserve the Southern way of Living in the South.

  • Jefferson Davis was the leader of the Confederate

  • Robert E. Lee was a Military General for the Southern States -he disliked slavery-but he could not fight against VA-his own state-so he joined the Confederacy

  • The Southern Men grew up riding horses and hunting with guns---and they had many well trained military officers, so their strength was in the army.

Robert E. Lee


The Northern States Advantages & Leaders


  • The Northern States were fighting over keeping and preserving America as one Nation and ending slavery.

  • The Advantages here were: a larger population & more resources than the Confederacy which meant a larger army, more factories in the North to make weapons and Railroads to transport troops

  • The North had many military leaders that fought for it but the final head leader was Ulysses S. Grant----as he won the war for the Union and the United States


The Anaconda Plan


  • The Anaconda plan was a plan to win the war developed by Abraham Lincoln (President of U.S.) & General Winfield Scott

  • It was named after the Anaconda snake which squeezed it's prey to death

  • Step 1: North would block Southern ports---this way South can't trade to get supplies and weapons from other countries

  • Step2: North would take control of the Mississippi River---so South would be split into 2 parts and could not use river to move supplies

  • Step 3: Union army would invade from the East and West


North vs. South


  • The North was the Union States or the Yankees

  • The South was the Confederate States or the Rebels

  • The South learned of Lincoln's Anaconda plan---so they used "cotton diplomacy" ---this was the Southern policy of negotiating with Britain---a country who needed cotton to use in their textile mills---(Industrial Revolution)---They need resources for their factories-they are a small island country without their own resources-need cotton to have production, to keep workers, to feed workers, their families and English people

  • Britain & France did give the South some warships-but they could not support a country that supported slavery


The Battle of Bull Run


  • Unlike the Battle of Fort Sumter---the Battle of Bull Run was really the first major battle because their were casualties

  • Bull Run was fought at a stream in Manassas, Virginia---the Southern States called the Stream "Bull Run"

  • A Southern General named Thomas Jackson became known as "Stonewall Jackson" because he looked like a stonewall in this battle as he stood firm with his troops

  • The South won this battle-the Union troops retreated to Washington D.C.


The Civil War


  • The Civil War was the first Modern War because it had new technology than the wars in previous years

  • Example: The Gatling Machine Gun-fired 250 bullets a minute, and Iron-covered battleships called Iron-clads

  • Also they had telegraphs and Railroads

  • The Civil war was also a "Total War"---a war in which each side not only strikes against one another's soldiers, but against civilians and the economic system of the enemy.

  • Civilians are people who are not in the armed forces


Antietam


  • Up until Spring of 1862-the South was winning the battles-it appeared that they would win the war

  • However-in September 1862-the Union and Confederates fought at Antietam, Maryland---this was one of the bloodiest battles in history

  • The North finally won a battle here

  • Five days after this battle Lincoln wrote a famous document


The Emancipation Proclamation


  • To Emancipate means to "free someone"

  • A Proclamation actually proclaims or announces something

  • The Document that Lincoln wrote after Antietam was the Emancipation Proclamation: This document was used to announce or proclaim the Freedom of African American Slaves

  • Lincoln used this document to tell Americans that the Civil War was not just about preserving the Union-but that it had a moral issue at stake----the Freedom of slaves


Gettysburg


  • The North won the Battle of Gettysburg

  • Gettysburg, Pennsylvania is where this Battle was fought

  • This Battle lasted three days and thousands of men died here

  • After this Battle-Lincoln gave a famous speech called "The Gettysburg Address" the speech was only 2 minutes long but the audience thought it was one of the best speeches they had ever heard---this speech inspired people to support the Union

  • Lincoln dedicated a cemetery here at Gettysburg, PA


The North wins the Civil War


  • Ulysses S. Grant was the Northern Union General Leader who moved his troops South to capture Richmond, VA the Confederate Capital and he eventually did in 1865 (He later also becomes President of U.S.)

  • 1864---Sherman was sent to destroy the South---he marched across 300 miles and his men burned down everything in their path

  • In 1865---Grant captured Richmond; and Lee, the Southern General surrendered at Appomattox Court House

  • The North won the war---Slavery was now over


Ulysses S. Grant


The End of the War


  • Lincoln and Congress passed the 13th Amendment after the war ended

  • The 13th Amendment---Abolished Slavery

  • After the War, Lincoln went with his wife to the Ford Theater to watch a play

  • While Lincoln was at the Theater---a man named John Wilkes Booth came into the President's box and shot Lincoln

  • Lincoln died on April 15, 1865

  • The South had been destroyed, Slavery was over and soon repair in the South would startb