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Discover_our_World_Yellow / Lesson 13: Review One of Yellow Unit Four

Review One of Yellow Unit Four

Quakers & Middle Colonies


  • The Quakers were a religious group that lived in the colony of Pennsylvania

  • William Penn was a Quaker

  • The word Quaker comes from the belief that people should "Quake" before the Power of the Lord


The colony of Pennsylvania


  • In 1681 King Charles II gave a man named William Penn a charter to establish a colony

  • Penn called his colony Pennsylvania, which was named after himself

  • In English: Pennsylvania meant "Penn's Woods"


Middle Colonies


  • The rich farmland and deep rivers in the Middle Colonies helped produce a lot of food

  • The other colonies soon began to nickname the Middle Colonies: "The Breadbasket of the Colonies" as a result


Oglethorpe


  • To protect the Carolina colonies, the new King of England, King George II in 1732 decided to start a new colony, which would be south of the Carolinas

  • King George II started a colony called Georgia which was named after himself---but the man he chose to run the colony named it Georgia

  • The colony of Georgia was to have a military man to defend it from Spain

  • King George II chose a man named James Oglethorpe as the military man


Oglethorpe's belief


  • Oglethorpe, the military man, believed that "England will grow rich by sending her poor abroad."

  • Oglethorpe knew that the debtors of England filled the prisons because they owed a lot of money, so if they came to the colony they could help make more money for England and get out of debt


Colonies


  • There were 13 English colonies that ended up forming all together

  • So many people came to the colonies as a result of hard times in England that by 1760 England was said to have "Colony Fever"

  • Around the late 1700s, England began passing laws to stop people from going to America because so many were leaving


The colonial voyages (ship rides to America by colonists)


  • It was dangerous and uncomfortable on the ship, as it took 4 months

  • People were crowded together with little light or air

  • The ceiling was only 4 1/2 feet high

  • The food was wormy and moldy

  • Many people died or got sick on the trip


Colonial Jobs


  • beginning so they had to do the following:

    1. Make their own clothing

    2. Grow their own food

    3. Build their own homes

    4. Make their own furniture

    5. Transport their own items everywhere

    6. Raise animals


Colonies


  • Colonial cities grew by ports because it was easy to haul goods by the water

  • There were some famous portside cities that flourished:
    1.) Philadelphia, PA
    2.)Boston, MA
    3.) New York, NY
    4.) Charles Town, SC

  • A very famous colonial citizen of Philadelphia, PA was Ben Franklin who invented the lighting rod, established the first fire dept., police force, the public library, and the first college, he was a scientist, a politician and much more


Supply & Demand in the Colonies


  • Supply is the amount of goods available at a given price at any time

  • Demand is how many consumers (people who buy things) desire the goods that are in supply and will buy them

  • Example---In the colonies, there were a lot of fish----in countries such as Poland there is no oceans or huge rivers so they do not have a lot of fish----if the people in Poland want fish then that means there is a demand for fish and because the colonies have fish that means there is a supply of fish---so the colonies can sell or trade fish with countries where there is a high demand for fish


Colonial crops


  • The popular crops that the farmers grew were tobacco, indigo, and grains

  • In Virginia, the main export crop was tobacco

  • The second largest cash crop of the Southern colonies was indigo (a plant used to make blue dye)-and a woman named Eliza Lucas Pinckney caused it to be popular by increasing the production process of it


The Shipbuilding Industry


  • In the New England colonies, it was important to have fishing ships and merchant ships so the demand for ships was high

  • There was also a lot of trees which meant that there was enough lumber available to make ships

  • So the Colonies had a supply and a demand for shipbuilding

  • The English wanted the colonists to only build or make or sell items only to them

  • The colonists began to make ships for other colonies which led to the free enterprise system


Colonial Free Enterprise


  • A Free Enterprise System: This is an economic system in which people can start any business that they want to and they decide what products to make, what prices to set and how much they want to produce---this system leads to competition which lowers prices because of choice and it provides motivation to work for money

  • Because the colonists could decide who they wanted to sell their ships to, they could make money from other countries besides England such as France or Spain or ETC. and England did not like the idea of the colonies building ships for other colonies or other countries because they could become independent from England


Colonial Free Enterprise


  • A Free Enterprise System: This is an economic system in which people can start any business that they want to and they decide what products to make, what prices to set and how much they want to produce---this system leads to competition which lowers prices because of choice and it provides motivation to work for money

  • Because the colonists could decide who they wanted to sell their ships to, they could make money from other countries besides England such as France or Spain or ETC. and England did not like the idea of the colonies building ships for other colonies or other countries because they could become independent from England


Colonial Triangular Trade


  • The Triangular Trade was known to be the trade route that slave ships sailed between Africa, the Americas and the West Indies by Europeans from mainly England

  • The Trade from the continent of Africa consisted of Human beings that were kidnapped slaves


The Middle Passage


  • The Middle Passage was the part of triangular trade that was the voyage from Africa to the West Indies---it was the middle part of the trade route

  • This was the part where the slaves rode the Slave Ship from Africa to the West Indies

  • The voyages were uncomfortable for the slaves---as slaves were packed into the ships in some cases so they could not sit up, they laid in their own waste, they were sweating from the heat, they had little food, they wore chains-many died

  • If the slaves got sick or died-they were thrown overboard to drown or be eaten by sea creatures


Continents involved in Slave Trade


  • North America: including the United States, the West Indies-this continent used the slaves as workers on their new plantations

  • The Continent of Africa: this continent provided slaves

  • The continent of Europe: mainly England-this continent sent out the slave ships, organized the slave trade, financed the missions and reaped the profits


Great Britain tries to make laws for the colonies


  • Legislation is the making or passing of laws

  • The legislation of Colonial governments had to be approved by the country of Great Britain

  • Great Britain continued to try to be involved in all laws made by the 13 colonies and there governments


Colonial Government ideas


  • LMany colonial governments got ideas from an English philosopher who wrote a book about government; his name was John Locke

  • Locke believed that government was responsible for protecting people's natural rights

  • Natural Rights are Rights that all people are born with

  • Locke said if citizens are unhappy with their rulers then they have the right to find other rulers


The French & Indian War (4th war)


  • The French and Indian war began when the same land was claimed by two countries

  • The Territory that both France and Britain claimed for themselves was the land in the Ohio River Valley

  • The Ohio River valley lies between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River

  • The Iroquois Indians had kept both the French and the British out of this area until the 1700s

  • The Iroquois soon began to sell the land to the British

  • France wanted the land and so they built forts there

  • Britain feared that France would take their land


George Washington in the French & Indian War


  • The first battle of The French and Indian War-was fought -at Fort Duquesne

  • The Lieutenant Governor of Virginia sent a 21 year old man to the Ohio River Valley to chase the French out of the area---his name was GEORGE WASHINGTON


Washington & The French & Indian War


  • Washington attacked and defeated a small force of French in the woods near this Fort

  • Washington said "I heard the bullets whistle; and believe me, there is something charming in the sound"

  • Washington and his men quickly built a temporary Fort that they named Fort Necessity

  • A larger French army came by and attacked the fort at Fort Necessity and defeated Washington and his men

  • The French had help from the Huron Indians

  • The French soon fought the British like the Indians fought

  • The British won this war