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Discover_our_World_Yellow / Lesson 14: Review Two of Yellow Unit Four Social Studies

Review Two of Yellow Unit Four Social Studies

Britain's Acts passed on the colonies


  • 1. Molasses Act of 1733-taxed molasses and sugar imported from West Indies

  • 2. The Sugar Act of 1764-taxed sugar

  • 3. The Stamp Act of 1765-taxed newspapers, pamphlets and signed legal documents

  • 4. The Quartering Act of 1765---forced colonists to buy extra food, drink, and candles for British soldiers and it forced colonists to have British soldiers to live in their houses, so Britain did not have to pay for British soldiers' houses in America

  • 5. The Town shend Acts of 1767-taxed tea, paper, glass, lead, and paint imported from Britain

  • 6. The Tea Act of 1773-taxed tea: this act was the final act which caused great rebellion of colonists---as colonists protested with the Boston Tea Party


The Stamp Act


  • After the Stamp Act was passed major colonial rebellion soared

  • The colonists were very angry about this Act

  • Many of the colonists formed a protest group called "The Sons of Liberty"---which means People who wanted freedom from British taxes

  • One member of this group was a newspaper writer who wrote many articles against the Stamp Act and his name was Samuel Adams

  • Many British Stamp Agents quit their jobs because of all of the angry colonists that they faced


The Boston Tea Party


  • After the Tea Act was passed-the Sons of Liberty organization put together a major protest on December 16, 1773

  • This protest was called The Boston Tea Party

  • The colonists wanted to protest the British tea because it had taxes on it---The British had 3 ships in the Boston Harbor loaded with over 342 chests of tea

  • On the night of the protest, the colonist dressed up like Indians and wore Mohawks and they sneaked on board the British ships and they dumped all of the tea into the ocean as they shouted, "Boston will be a teapot tonight"

  • After this event----many colonists switched to drinking coffee and soon the British tradition of afternoon tea drinking disappeared from the colonies


Taxes


  • 1700s-Britain raised the taxes to be even higher than they were because Great Britain had to pay for the wars it had fought against France in the French and Indian Wars

  • The problem was: The American colonists were not allowed to be representatives in the British Government

  • So the colonists created a popular patriotic chant to try to gain representation in The British Government or to have Britain stop raising the taxes. The chant was "TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION IS TYRANNY"


The Boston Massacre


  • In 1768 --- children began throwing snowballs at the British calling them "lobsters"---because of their red uniforms

  • In 1770 ---- A group of colonists were gathering at the Customs House to discuss protests; and a young former slave named, Crispus Attucks yelled out to the colonists: "The way to get rid of these soldiers is to attack the main guard"---at that minute the British soldiers raised their guns and fired at the crowd; killing Crispus Attucks and 4 other people


Paul Revere


  • Paul Revere was a secret spy and a messenger for the patriots and he rode to Lexington to warn Samuel Adams and John Hancock about the British coming to arrest them---and he rode to Concord to warn the patriots that the British were coming so that the Patriots could keep their weapons away from the British

  • It was dangerous because it was the same road that British were taking


Patrick Henry


  • Patrick Henry a Virginia lawyer gave a speech at the House of Burgesses on March 23, 1775

  • He inspired the colonists to break their support with Great Britain and support the patriots in their fight for freedom

  • "Gentlemen may cry, Peace, Peace-- but there is no peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!" Patrick Henry



Loyalists vs. Patriots


  • Some of the colonists were still Loyalists-not all of them supported the patriots in the War

  • Loyalists were the Americans who still remained loyal to Britain---these people supported the red coats or the British because they traded with the British and they made money off of the British

  • Patriots were the colonists who wanted to fight for American Independence from Britain


King George III of Britain


  • King George III, who was the British King in the late 1700s was not intending to start a war with the Americans, but rather he wanted to force them to submit to British rule


George Washington

 

  • In June of 1775 - John Adams nominated George Washington to be the Commander and Chief of the New Continental Army

     

  • George Washington he said "was a gentleman whose skill as an officer... would command the respect of America."


Thomas Paine


  • In 1776 a Pennslyvania man from England wrote a pamphlet called "Common Sense"

  • This pamphlet sold over 100,000 copies

  • Paine argued in it that the colonists do not have to be loyal to an unjust ruler

  • Washington supported the pamphlet because it helped change the minds of Americans to support the fight for Independence


Thomas Jefferson


  • Thomas Jefferson wrote The Declaration of Independence in a period of 2 weeks time

  • Jefferson had heard speeches of Patrick Henry, he had read "Common Sense," he had studied law, and he had read ideas from the Enlightenment authors such as John Locke

  • Locke believed that people were born with certain rights by birth----life-liberty and right to own property and Government needed to protect these rights


The Declaration of Independence


  • It was approved and signed by the 2nd Continental Congress on July 4, 1776

  • This document did not end the war-it simply stated that the colonists wanted their own government apart from Britain

  • John Hancock was the first to sign it-he wrote his name so big so "King George would not need his glasses to read it"

  • Sometimes people call signatures "John Hancock's" today as a result


The Declaration of Independence: A document of hope for the world


  • By signing this document: These men had become "traitors" to Great Britain----if they lost the war they would most likely be hanged

  • The purpose of the Declaration of Independence was to explain why the colonies had to separate from Great Britain----it was bold to put these ideas in writing


American Strengths


  • 1. The Americans were defending their own homes which gave them motivation to fight

  • 2. The Americans knew the land; and they used it for attacks

  • 3. They had learned guerilla warfare from the Indians: these are surprise sneak attacks instead of being lined up in the open to fight like the British

  • 4. The Americans had skilled men like Washington, who knew how to fight-as he was trained by the British and he fought for them in the French and Indian Wars

  • 5. Americans had the help of French soldiers or mercenaries


British Strengths


  • 1. The British had the most powerful navy in the world

  • 2. The British were going through an Industrial Revolution; which left them a wealthy nation which could produce lots of weapons & uniforms

  • 3. Britain had well trained & disciplined soldiers

  • 4. Britain also used it's wealth to get German soldiers to help them---so they had support of other countries


American Disadvantages


  • 1. The patriots had no army or navy in the beginning-just minutemen

  • 2. Getting men to serve in a continental army was tough

  • 3. The army had no money to feed, clothe or pay soldiers

  • 4. The army had a shortage of weapons


British Disadvantages


  • 1. The war was not popular in England so their was no motivation to fight

  • 2. The English and Scottish people that lived in Britain did not want to pay for the war-they did not want to pay their taxes either

  • 3. The war was very far away from Britain-so it took months to get more supplies to soldiers

  • 4. It was costly for the British to have thousands of soldiers overseas


France helps America


  • France wanted to help the American patriots

  • In 1778-France entered an alliance with the 13 colonies

  • France helped fight the British on the seas at first

  • The French brought new guns, weapons and training to the Americans


The War Ends


  • The war dragged on until 1783

  • Britain began to fear that they would lose other parts of their empire if they continued to fight the Americans

  • Peace talks between the British and the Americans began in 1782; the American representatives who went to Britain to negotiate were-John Jay, Ben Franklin, and John Adams

  • On September 3, 1783 The American Revolution ended when the Treaty of Paris in 1783 was signed----American Independence was recognized by other countries on this day, including Britain


James Madison


  • On the day that the Convention began-James Madison had already worked out a plan for the revised government

  • Madison's plan became known as the Virginia plan and that his plan was the first one discussed

  • Other plans were also discussed; but because Madison's plan was adopted-James Madison became the "Father or "Godfather" of the Constitution


The U.S. Constitution


  • The Constitution outlines our new American Government system-it was different than the old government outlined in the Articles of Confederation

  • We adopted our Constitutional outlined government system from Rome & Greece

  • The government system that we adopted is called a Democratic Republic---it is both a democracy and a Republic---so the people make the laws and choose the representatives


The Bill of Rights


  • The Bill of Rights are the first 10 Amendments that were added to the Constitution by the founders


The Preamble


  • There is an introduction to the Constitution of the United States-it is called the Preamble to the Constitution

  • The Preamble: We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America."


The President of the United States


  • The first President or the Father of our country who was elected to this new government system that is outlined in the constitution was George Washington