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Discover_our_World_Yellow / Lesson 15: Review for Yellow Unit Five Exam

Pioneers

  • There were un-chartered lands beyond the Appalachian Mountains that Americans wanted to explore.
  • The people who led the way west were called pioneers.
  • (Today, Anyone who leads the way in exploring new or uncharted territories is also called a pioneer; for example, those who explore the unknown areas such as the oceans, outer space, other planets, etc. are also pioneers.)


Manifest Destiny

  • Many pioneers had a belief in Manifest Destiny.
  • Manifest Destiny is the belief that the Americans had the God-given right to spread their culture, religious beliefs and traditions on other people who were in the world because they were right. 
  • The Pioneers who believed in Manifest Destiny wanted to travel westward to share God with the Native American people groups, who did not know their God.
  • The Pioneers believed that this God-given right also gave them the rights to travel westward to settle in new lands.


Manifest Destiny

  • The people of the United States felt it was their mission to extend the "boundaries of freedom" to others by imparting their idealism and belief in democratic institutions to those who were capable of self-government. It excluded those people who were perceived as being incapable of self-government, such as Native American people and those of non-European origin.


Pioneers

  • The Pioneers moved west for adventure, for cheaper and better farm land, and because of their belief in Manifest Destiny.
  • Pioneers experienced unfamiliar surroundings, fear of Native American attacks, long hot days of travel, etc.


The Louisiana Territory

  • The land west of the Mississippi River was called the Louisiana Territory after a French King
  • The Louisiana Territory was owned by France in 1801
  • Thomas Jefferson, the U.S. President wanted the U.S. to grow bigger than 16 states-he also worried that France could block off the Mississippi River trade for the U.S.


U.S. Bought Louisiana Territory From France

  • Napoleon, the Ruler of France in the 1800s, said that he needed money for his war with Britain, so he was willing to sell all of the Louisiana Territory to the U.S.
  • The United States agreed to buy all of the Louisiana Territory for $15 million  which was only about 3-4 cents an acre
  • This was an important purchase because it doubled the size of the U.S. without a war


Louis and Clark

  • As a result of the U.S. buying the Louisiana Territory---Jefferson wanted to know about this land and so he assigned two men to go on an expedition to explore the land and to report back their findings.

  • The two men were: Meriwether Lewis and William Clark


Sacagawea

  • There were many Native Americans in this territory
  • Lewis and Clark did not know the Native American tongues-so they took a Native American woman named Sacagawea, from the Shoshone tribe with them as a translator for their expedition


The War of 1812-The Battle of Lake Erie

  • In 1813---The war of 1812 was still going on
  • 1813---Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry and his American sailing crew fought the British navy on Lake Erie
  • Perry had a flag on his ship that said "Don't give up the ship."
  • Perry kept fighting until almost all of his crew was dead
  • Perry then took the remaining crew and rowed out in a small rowboat to another American reinforcement ship
  • Perry took over and fought with his crew until the Americans defeated the British in the Battle of Lake Erie


The war of 1812


  • As the British were attacking and bombing the Americans, an American lawyer named Francis Scott Key wrote a poem
  • He saw that the Americans held there ground through the night because the American flag was still soaring overhead
  • Francis Scott Key's  poem became a famous song or our National Anthem Song-it is called "The Star Spangled Banner"


Wagon Trains

 

  • The pioneers or westward travelers, traveled in wagon trains

  • Wagon trains are large groups of covered wagons that moved westward together


Oregon Territory


  • If a travelers wanted to go to the Oregon Territory than they would take the Oregon Trail
  • More than 300,000 pioneers followed the Oregon trail west
  • There are still visible remains of the wagon wheels today because so many wagons took this trail


The Gold Rush

  • In 1848-an engineer named James Marshall saw something shiny in the stream by the mill where he worked in California
  • The mill where Marshall worked was Sutter's Mill
  • Sutter's Mill was named after its owner: John Sutter
  • Marshall showed the gold to Sutter
  • Sutter told him to keep it a secret, so that his workers would continue to work on his mill instead of searching for gold  Sutter
  • The secret got out and thousands of people migrated to California---in search of gold---so the migration was called the Gold Rush


Gold Rush 

 Gold seekers called themselves  "the forty-niners"  because it was 1849 when thousands of men reached California to search and pan for gold  

  


Texas fights for Independence from Mexico

  • The Texans took over a Spanish mission or church in San Antonio, Texas; which was called the Alamo
  • The Texans turned the Alamo into a fort
  • Americans came down to help the Texans fight the Mexicans
  • A famous U.S. Congressman from Tennessee joined the fight for Texan independence-his name was Davey Crockett-Davey Crockett ended up dying in the fight at the Alamo

 


The Battle at the Alamo

  • There were 187-257 Texan families that gathered at the Alamo
  • Santa Anna and 4000 Mexican troops surrounded the Alamo on February 23, 1836
  • The Mexicans attacked the Alamo
  •  After 2 weeks of fighting the Mexican soldiers broke into the Alamo and then there was hand-to hand fighting
  • The Mexicans killed almost all of the Texans
  • 1000 Mexican soldiers also died 
  • Only women and children were left on March 19
  • Santa Anna had the rest of the Alamo men killed-so Mexico won the Battle at the Alamo


Texas finally wins their Independence

  • Sam Houston---The head of the Texan army gathered Texan troops
  • Houston surprised the Mexican troops at the San Jacinto River on April 21, 1836
  • His Texan troops shouted the following phrase as they fought "Remember the Alamo!"
  • In 18 minutes-after the fighting started-Santa Anna was captured by Texans


Texas finally wins their Independence

  • The prisoner of Texans, Santa Anna agreed to give Texans their Independence in exchange for his freedom
  • Texas became a republic---it's own country as a result----With General Sam Houston as President


Industrial Revolution

  • The word Revolution means change
    Before the late 1700s-people made needed goods at home or in shops with hand tools
    In the late 1700s--- new mechanical machines were invented that changed the way goods were made in many industries
    The Industrial Revolution was the time in history (late 1700s through 1800s) when goods formerly made with hand tools changed to being made with machines in factories.


Samuel Slater

  • Samuel Slater was an Englishman that worked in the British cloth factories
  • He heard that American business owners would pay lots of money to get the British machine secrets
  • He memorized the plans of the British spinning machines and he sailed to America.  In Rhode Island-he was hired by an American merchant to build the first American cotton spinning machines in 1790.
  • Samuel Slater changed America by bringing the machines to America which spread the Industrial Revolution.


The First Industrial Revolution

  • The First Industrial Revolution occurred in Britain in the late 1700s
  • The first industry that changed as a result of the new machines that developed during the Industrial Revolution was the Textile Industry
  • The Textile industry is the cloth-making industry


The Transcontinental Railroad is built

  • Promontory Point, Utah would be considered the most important landmark in the building of the railroad. 
  • On May 10, 1869, Promontory Point, Utah was where the two railroads came together to complete the railroad.
  • At this time, the last tie was laid and hammered together with a bronze and gold spike.
  • Promontory Point signifies the completion of one of the most historical events in the United States.


Time Zones


  • In 1884-Time Zones were established as a result of the railroads
  • The time zones set the pattern for train schedules
  • The entire world was divided into 24 time zones


The Homestead Act

  • In 1862 President Lincoln signed the Homestead Act
  • The Homestead Act---This act gave 160 acres or one quarter square mile of public land in the Great Plains area to adult men 21 years of age, widows, or heads of family.
  • All the settlers had to do was pay a small fee of $1.25 an acre, farm the land and live on it for five years.
  • People who claimed the land under this act were called homesteaders.


The Great Plains

  • Those who settled in the Great Plains area needed houses-but what did they have to built houses out of?? Sod or mud
  • The settlers made their houses out of sod so they were called sod houses
  • The people who lived in the sod houses were called Sodbusters because they had to "bust" through the thick sod to get it to build their houses and plant crops for food


Cotton

  • In the Southern states in the 1800s---the crop that brought in the most cash was cotton-so as a result of cotton bringing in the most money it was called "King Cotton"---because it was  the best crop to grow on a plantation if the owner wanted to make money
  • Cotton, however needed to have the seeds and fibers separated which took awhile, so plantation owners also needed slaves


Abolitionists

  • Abolitionists were people who wanted to abolish or end slavery in the United States

  • Example: Harriet Beecher Stowe was a white female who believed slavery was wrong---so she wrote a book called "Uncle Tom's Cabin" which spoke of the horrors of slavery


The Underground Railroad

  • The Underground railroad was a system of secret routes that escaping captives followed to freedom
  • The escaping slaves and those who helped them used railroad terms as code words
  • Example: Those who helped escaping slaves were "conductors" and escaping slaves were "passengers"
  • Example: The places slaves hid were "stations"
  • People who fed and sheltered them were "station masters"
  • Songs such as "Follow the Drinking Gourd"-gave them directions for escaping north in code---as the drinking gourd was the Ohio River


Civil War

  • A Civil War is a war between two groups of citizens of the same country.
  • The American Civil War was the war between 1860-1865 in the United States between the Northern States and the Southern States.
  • The Southern states fought to make their own decisions apart from the Federal Government, and to keep slavery
  • The Northern states fought to keep the United States as one nation and to end slavery.



                       The Emancipation Proclamation

  • To Emancipate means to "free someone"
  • A Proclamation actually proclaims or announces something
  • The Document that Lincoln wrote during the Civil War was the Emancipation Proclamation: This document was used to announce or proclaim the Freedom of African American Slaves
  • Lincoln used this document to tell Americans that the Civil War was not just about preserving the Union-but that it had a moral issue at stake----the Freedom of slaves
     


The North wins the Civil War

  • Ulysses S. Grant was the Northern Union General Leader who moved his troops South to capture Richmond, VA the Confederate Capital and he eventually did in 1865  (He later also becomes President of U.S.)
  • 1864---Sherman was sent to destroy the South---he marched across 300 miles and his men burned down everything in their path
  • In 1865---Grant captured Richmond; and Lee, the Southern General surrendered at Appomattox Court House
  • The North won the war---Slavery was now over


President Lincoln Dies

  • Lincoln and Congress passed the 13th Amendment after the war ended
  • The 13th Amendment---Abolished Slavery
  • After the War, President Lincoln, who was President of the U.S. during the Civil War, went with his wife to the Ford Theater to watch a play
  • While Lincoln was at the Theater---a man named John Wilkes Booth came into the President's box and shot Lincoln
  • Lincoln died on April 15, 1865
  • The South had been destroyed, Slavery was over and soon repair in the South would start