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Discover_our_World_Yellow / Lesson 19: The Plymouth Colony



The Plymouth Colony

The Forced Religion of England

  • In 1527 King Henry VIII set up the Church of England----The Church of England believed in divorce and if the people of England did not believe what the King believed then the King beheaded the people

  • Following his rule, Queen Mary went back to the Catholic Church and anyone who was not Catholic-she had them beheaded

  • Queen Elizabeth changed the church to a Protestant church

  • The people had to keep switching their religious beliefs depending on who their King or Queen was, and they did not like it

The Pilgrims & their search for Religious Freedom

  • In the early 1600s one English group of people who wanted Freedom of Religion were called "Pilgrims" or "Separatists"

  • They moved out of England to Holland in the Netherlands but they did not want their children to become Dutch, so they asked the new King; King James I, if they could travel to America to set up a English colony, and the King said Yes!!!

The Pilgrims travel on the Atlantic Ocean

  • In 1620, the London Company agreed to pay for the pilgrims to travel to America on a boat called "THE MAYFLOWER"

  • The pilgrims took 100 people, and the Food they ate on the Mayflower consisted of barrels of bread, salted beef, pigs, chickens, and goats

  • They sailed for 66 days on the stormy Atlantic ocean the Pilgrims reached land in November 1620

  • The Pilgrims thought they were going to Virginia, but they actually landed in Cape Cod; which is part of New England in a place we call Massachusetts

Pilgrims & Mayflower Compact

  • Before the Pilgrims got off of the ship, they signed an agreement called "The Mayflower Compact"---this compact was a new form of government for the colony

  • The compact made them agree to all sorts of new laws

The Native Americans at Cape Cod

  • The Pilgrims landed in a place where the Wampanoag Indians lived

  • The Wampanoag people farmed, hunted and fished on the coast of Cape Cod for thousands of years

  • They spoke a language called Algonkian: some of our English words today come out of these Indian words such as; moose, hickory, moccasin, and squash

  • The name of a Wampanoag leader was called a sachem, but the sachem of the Wampanoag in the early 1600s was named Massasoit

Famous Native Americans

  • There were three famous Native Americans that were part of the Wampanoag Tribe when the pilgrims arrived that helped save their lives:

  • 1. Massasoit - he was the leader or sachem of the Wampanoag---he knew about the strange ships arriving even before he saw them---he offered gifts and offered a peace treaty to the Pilgrims

  • 2. Squanto --- he taught the Pilgrims how to grow corn and crops in the New World so they would not starve---he used fish as a fertilizer, he taught pilgrims how to trap rabbits, deer and other wild animals

  • 3. Samoset --- he knew the English language and he could translate between the Indians and the pilgrims

The Pilgrims name their colony: Plymouth

  • The pilgrims decided to name their colony at Cape Cod; The Plymouth Colony

  • There is a famous rock that is found at Plymouth with the year 1620 written on it and it is nicknamed "Plymouth rock"

  • Many of the Pilgrims were cold and sick the first winter and others starved to death

  • Only one half of the pilgrims lived

A Pilgrim Leader

  • After the old governor died, the new leader was named William Bradford

  • After the old governor died, the new leader was named William Bradford

  • Bradford called Squanto "A special instrument sent of God for their good"

An Autumn Feast In 1621

  • The Pilgrims had built a colony by 1621

  • Bradford decided to have a special harvest feast to give thanks to God for their survival

  • The Pilgrims wanted to thank God for allowing them to survive a year in a new place, they wanted to thank God for allowing the Indians to help them, they were thankful for the food and crops they had for the upcoming winter, and they were thankful for their freedom to worship God

The Pilgrims invite the Indians to their feast

  • Because the Indians helped the Pilgrims to survive, the Pilgrims invited 90 Wampanoag Indians and their leader, Massasoit, to their feast

  • This feast has been called our country's first "Thanksgiving"

  • Every year in America, we honor this day as Thanksgiving Day, and we have a feast like the Pilgrims and the Indians did

The First Thanksgiving Feast

  • The English Pilgrims and the Wampanoag Indians feasted for actually three days

  • The Indians brought deer to the feast

  • The Pilgrims had Turkeys, goose and duck

  • The Pilgrims also had cabbage, carrots, turnips, onions, lobster, eels, oysters and fish

  • They also ate pumpkin, corn and bread

  • For desert they had plums, gooseberries and strawberries

The Traditions

  • The Pilgrims sat on stools and benches, but the Indians sat on the ground

  • A pilgrim named, Miles Standish, led a parade of men around the colony firing off guns

  • The Wampanoag Indians shot bows and arrows

  • There were also races and wrestling matches

  • In the evenings were Harvest dances