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Discover_our_World_Yellow / Lesson 2: The Southern Colonies

The Southern Colonies & Conflicts

The Colony of Maryland

  • 1634 ---King Charles I of England wanted to start a Catholic Colony

  • The King gave George Calvert a charter for a Catholic colony

  • The Queen of England's name was Queen Henrietta Maria

  • Calvert named his Catholic colony: Maryland after the Queen


  • George Calvert, the original Lord Baltimore died, but his son Cecil Calvert took over the colony and he became a second Lord Baltimore

  • The capital of Maryland is named after him: Baltimore, Maryland

  • Cecil changed the Catholic colony of Maryland to a colony that allowed various religions to promote the colony's growth

  • In 1649, the colony passed "The Maryland Toleration Act"---This law stated that as long as the settlers of Maryland were Christians, then they should not be troubled in any way for their religion

The Carolina colony

  • 1663 - King Charles II gave the land of what is today North and South Carolina to 8 proprietors, or owners of the land---these eight men divided the land into 3 counties

  • Some colonists believed that the county leaders were more interested in making money than helping the people of the colony

  • In one county, the colonists were led by a man named: John Culpeper, who with the colonists they started a revolt known as Culpeper's Rebellion and they took over the County government: This was in what is today, North Carolina


  • Culpeper and his followers eventually took over all of the Carolinas

  • In 1691, governors were appointed to govern the entire colony with a deputy governor in the North Carolina region

  • In 1712, North Carolina became a separate colony from South Carolina

  • In The 1700s, both of the Carolina colonies became successful

  • Spain had also had claims in the Carolinas and Spain had several settlements south of them, so King Charles II worried that Spain would start a revolution over the Carolinas

The colony of Georgia

  • To protect the Carolinas, the new King of England, King George II in 1732 decided to start a new colony, which would be south of the Carolinas

  • King George II started a colony called Georgia which was named after himself---but the man he chose to run the colony named it Georgia

  • The colony of Georgia was to have a military man to defend it from Spain

  • King George II chose a man named James Oglethorpe as the military man


  • Oglethorpe, the military man, believed that "England will grow rich by sending her poor abroad."

  • Oglethorpe knew that the debtors of England filled the prisons because they owed a lot of money, so if they came to the colony they could help make more money for England and get out of debt


  • Oglethorpe was in charge of the colony of Georgia-he was there to protect it and to control it

  • Very few debtors actually came to Georgia

  • Georgia colonists grew corn, tobacco, rice, grapes, silkworms and indigo

  • Indigo is a plant that produces a blue dye

  • Georgia began to have large farming areas

  • There were not enough workers for the new colonist's farms


  • As a result of a worker shortage in Georgia on the farms, the people enslaved Africans to work on their farms

  • As a result of a worker shortage in Georgia on the farms, the people enslaved Africans to work on their farms

  • In 1760, there was a total population of 10,000 people in Georgia, but 4000 of those same people were African slaves
    Oglethorpe outlawed slavery in Georgia, but the people pretended to "rent" African slaves

The Native Americans in Georgia

  • There were many Native American tribes that made up a Native American Confederacy in the area we now call Savannah, Georgia

  • The Native American Confederacy consisted of different tribes that were joined for a common purpose---their purpose was to protect their lands from the new colonists

  • The tribes that made up the confederacy were: The Muscogee (The Creek Indians), The Cherokee, The Choctaw, and The Chickasaw

Georgia colonists & The Native Americans

  • The Creek Indians, (today they are called the Muscogee), were very powerful and there were many divisions of Creek Indians

  • One division of the Creek people was the Yamacraw Native Americans

  • The chief of the Yamacraw was Chief Tomochichi

  • The Yamacraw lived on the Savannah River

  • Oglethorpe's colony was set up in Savannah, Georgia

  • Oglethorpe and Tomochichi met and set up an agreement---The Yamacraw allowed Oglethorpe to colonize the settlement of Savannah, Georgia


  • Oglethorpe was able to not only protect Georgia from the Native American Attacks, but he was also able to protect Georgia from many Spanish attacks

  • Georgia was the last English colony that was established

The Southern Colonies

  • The Southern Colonies were established for several reasons

  • The main reasons for the founding of Virginia and the Carolinas was to make money

  • Maryland was founded as a Catholic refuge

  • Georgia was founded as a place for debtors

  • Many English came to the Southern Colonies to farm the fertile land

  • 1n 1607, Virginia was the first colony and in 1732, Georgia was the last colony

  • There were now 13 English colonies---but in about 50 years the colonies would become the United States of America

The Southern Colonies

  • If the English had not colonized the Southern colonies, then The Spanish might have colonized them or the Native Americans might have been strong enough to keep their lands