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Discover_our_World_Yellow / Lesson 3: The War of 1812

The War of 1812

The President of the U.S. in 1812


  • In 1812-The President of the United States was James Madison (The Father of the Constitution)

  • Madison wanted the United States to be a neutral nation ---or a nation that was not fighting a war

  • At the time in 1812: Britain & France were fighting a war with each other in Europe and in Canada


Native Americans in 1812


  • In 1812: The Native Americans were unhappy with the American settlers taking their land---so when the war of 1812 breaks out they sided with the British

  • In 1812: The Americans were unhappy with Native American attacks on them

  • Native Americans often killed or scalped American settlers because the settlers took away their land and changed the environment


Native Americans


  • Americans thought the British were helping the Native Americans attack them because the British had lost the Revolutionary War

  • A Shawnee Native American Chief named Tecumseh was a Indian Chief who was angry at American settlers so he organized an attack on them.

  • Tecumseh urged his fellow Indians not to sell their land to the white settlers; he said it was like selling the air and the water.

  • He died in a battle in Detroit, MI in 1813.


The Americans are forced into war


  • In 1812---The British and the French were fighting each other-not the Americans

  • However, the British began taking over American ships and fighting the French with the American ships-and the British forced the American sailors to serve in the British navy

  • Also, the French began to do the same thing

  • The Americans were caught in the middle of a foreign war

  • The Indians helped the British take over Americans

  • Americans were angry because they were trying to be neutral and not fight, but they could not sit back and let the American people suffer so we got involved


Henry Clay gets Americans Ready to fight


  • Henry Clay was an American Senator in 1812

  • Clay decided to declare war against the British again-not France because they helped in the Revolutionary war-and Britain was the country that was mostly taking American ships

  • Clay told the Americans: "Free trade and Seamen's rights!"

  • Clay organized an American group out of American congressmen; he called the group, "The War Hawks."

    To know more information click on this image


The War Hawks


  • The War Hawks convinced Congress to support a second war against Great Britain

  • The War Hawks got James Madison to declare war on Great Britain

  • In June of 1812----war was declared

  • The War at first was called "Madison's War" because he was the President when the war broke out---but later it was known as "The War of 1812"


One of the First Battles was Am. Success


  • In 1812-The British had a powerful navy of ships-so Americans had to be stronger

  • On August 19, 1812---Nova Scotia, Canada-the powerful British warship "Guerriere" was sank by an American ship called "The USS Constitution"

  • The American sailors who sank the British ship then nicknamed their "USS Constitution" ship ---"Old Ironsides"because the British cannonballs had bounced off of it's tough oak sides


The Battle on Lake Erie


  • In 1813---The war still was going on

  • 1813---Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry and his American sailing crew fought the British navy on Lake Erie

  • Perry had a flag on his ship that said "Don't give up the ship."

  • Perry kept fighting until almost all of his crew was dead

  • Perry then took the remaining crew and rowed out in a small rowboat to another American reinforcement ship

  • Perry took over and fought with his crew until the Americans defeated the British in the Battle of Lake Erie



  Oliver Perry

    Battle of Lake Erie

  • On September 10, 1813, Commodore Perry defeats the British fleet at the Battle of Lake Erie. The Battle, which is hard fought by both sides, ends up with a total defeat for the British. Perry sends his famous message to his commander: "WE HAVE MET THE ENEMY AND THEY ARE OURS. Lake Erie becomes an American lake.


Battles on Land


  • The Battles at Sea were taking place while other battles were fought on land

  • The land battles were fought by the British and the Indians versus the Americans

  • Commander Andrew Jackson fought the Native American Creek people in Tennessee and the Americans won-so the Native Americans ended up losing their land---so many Indians fled to other tribes and areas


The British Attack Washington DC

 

  • 1814---The British troops marched into Washington DC and burned the White House & The Capital building down

     

  • The President's wife: First Lady Dolley Madison saved the important American documents and a portrait of George Washington during the fire

 



After Washington DC was destroyed:


  • After Washington DC was destroyed-the British moved on to Baltimore and they attacked Fort McHenry

  • As the British were attacking and bombing the Americans, an American lawyer named Francis Scott Key wrote a poem

  • He saw that the Americans held there ground through the night because the American flag was still soaring overhead

  • Francis Scott Key's poem became a famous song or our National Anthem Song-it is called "The Star Spangled Banner"


The Star-Spangled Banner -Francis Scott Key, 1814


  • The Star-Spangled Banner

  • -Francis Scott Key, 1814

  • O say, can you see, by the dawn's early light, What so proudly we hail'd at the twilight's last gleaming? Whose broad stripes and bright stars, thro' the perilous fight, O'er the ramparts we watch'd, were so gallantly streaming? And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air, Gave proof thro' the night that our flag was still there. O say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?



Listen to "The Star-Spangled Banner"


Who won the War of 1812??


  • Both the British and the Americans had won and lost battles

  • Both sides did not want to fight by 1814

  • Britain won it's war with France in 1814

  • The U.S. had defeated many Native American tribes and had stopped the attacks

  • So a peace treaty was signed in 1814

  • The Americans then regained control of their ships and resumed trading


Someone forgot to tell the American soldiers that the war was over:


  • The Peace Treaty was signed in 1814

  • The Americans in Washington DC were rebuilding the city

  • 1815---New Orleans---Andrew Jackson an American General does not know about the Peace Treaty-so he attacks the British ----2000 British soldiers were killed here and 50 of Jackson's troops were killed-but the Americans won the Battle

  • Jackson had later found out that the Battle was unnecessary



  The Monroe Doctrine


  • James Monroe became the President after James Madison

  • Monroe was concerned about future wars

  • Monroe created a doctrine he called the Monroe Doctrine

  • The Monroe Doctrine protected the U.S. from future wars by stating that "The United States opposes all future colonization by any European powers in the Western Hemisphere and the United States will not take part in any European Wars."


Other wars


  • There were still wars with Native Americans and the Spanish in the 1800s

  • In 1819---Andrew Jackson defeated the Native Americans and the Spanish in a war in Florida---and the United States acquired Florida as a result