<< Back to Lessons Index

Discover_our_World_Yellow / Lesson 7: Inventions and the Industrial Revolution

Inventions & The Industrial Revolution


A Revolution

 The word Revolution means change
Before the late 1700s - people made needed goods at home or in shops with hand tools
In the late 1700s--- new mechanical machines were invented that changed the way goods were made in many industries
The Industrial Revolution was the time in history (late 1700s through 1800s) when goods formerly made with hand tools changed to being made with machines in factories.
 


The First Industrial Revolution

 The First Industrial Revolution occurred in Britain in the late 1700s
The first industry that changed as a result of the new machines that developed during the Industrial Revolution was the Textile Industry
The Textile industry is the cloth-making industry
 


The British textile Industry

 Britain used water-powered machines to produce cloth cheaply
One of the first machines that Britain used was invented by James Hargreaves, called the Spinning Jenny
The Spinning Jenny was one of the first cloth making machines that revolutionized the textile industry
 


Britain

 Britain began to make lots of machines for making cloth faster than by hand
Britain wanted to keep their machine technology a secret
They made laws to prevent the exporting of machines or plans for machines to other countries"�so that they could be the only country to make lots of cloth and they could sell their products to other countries
The other countries would then have to get their cloth supply from Britain - and Britain could retain their wealth
 

 

 


Samuel Slater

 Samuel Slater was an Englishman that worked in the British cloth factories
He heard that American business owners would pay lots of money to get the British machine secrets
He memorized the plans of the British spinning machines and he sailed to America.  In Rhode Island - he was hired by an American merchant to build the first American cotton spinning machines in 1790.
Samuel Slater changed America by bringing the machines to America which spread the Industrial Revolution.
 


The Industrial Revolution

Once people learned about machines and how they work - many different people continued to invent new inventions and machines; and soon----there were lots of factories and inventions that spread across America.


The Industrial Revolution

The First Industrial Revolution was in Britain


When Slater brought the machines to America - that began a second industrial revolution in America


The Industrial Revolutions are called either the British Industrial Revolution or the American Industrial Revolution


The Luddites

 In Britain their was a group of men who ended up losing their jobs because the machines replaced their work.
These men were very unhappy at having no job - because they had no money to feed their families as a result.
These men decided to stop the Industrial Revolution by gathering together at night to destroy the machines in various British factories.
These men were called the Luddites; after Ned Lud-the leader
Eventually, they were arrested for destroying the machines that took their jobs and the Industrial Revolution continued.
 


Eli Whitney

 In 1793 - an American man, named Eli Whitney, invented a machine called the Cotton Gin
The cotton gin was a machine that removed the cotton seeds from cotton.- It clean up to 50 times more cotton than workers by hand.
The cotton gin changed the economy of the South - as it made cotton and slavery more profitable.

 


Eli Whitney

Eli Whitney came up with a new way to manufacture products in 1798


Eli Whitney had also invented a way to tools that could produce standard products - or products that were the same.


The results were that his machines created interchangeable parts: which were parts that could be created identically in order to fit any machine or tool that they were created for.


The U. S. army asked him to make 10,000 guns called muskets - with his machines.


The interchangeable parts he created were made to fit all of the muskets - thus dropping expensive costs and time by making guns by hand, specifically for each gun.


Francis C. Lowell

 Francis Lowell went to Britain in 1812 to visit the textile factories
In 1813 - Lowell and his partners built a textile factory in Waltham, Massachusetts
He made sure that all steps of making cloth occurred from making thread to weaving cloth
Lowell built a factory town in 1817 that was known as Lowell, Massachusetts
He hired both women and men to work in his factories
The women were called "Mill Girls" and they worked 12-14 hours a day - six days a week - They even lived in a boarding house next door to the factory
 


Cyprus McCormick

 In 1832 - Cyprus McCormick built an improved reaper


A reaper is a machine with sharp blades used to cut grain


The reaper could cut up to 4 times as much grain as hand workers

 


John Deere

 John Deere, an Illinois Blacksmith, in 1837 invented plow with a steel saw in a plow shape that could cut through prairie grass

 


New Transportation inventions

In the 1800s - there were also new inventions that were created which revolutionized transportation:


1. The Steam Engine---used for steam power - creating steam boats
2. Steam locomotives---which became trains and railroads
3. Canals---Human built waterways to travel easier
4. The National road ----this was a road that people built out of stone and gravel from MD to Illinois---the stagecoaches soon traveled it


The Erie Canal

 The Erie canal was a 350- mile man-made waterway began in 1817 and was finished in 1825


The Erie Canal connected New York with the Great Lakes


It took 7 million dollars to build it.


The canal used a series of locks to elevate boats to the next level on the canal


This canal was a success and it made trading easier for farmers in NY, OH, IL, and Indiana