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7th Grade Language Arts / Lesson 8d1: Simple, Compound And Complex Sentence

Simple, Compound & Complex Sentences

Review


  • Independent clause : a group of words that has a subject, a verb, expresses a complete thought, and can stand alone as a complete sentence.

  • Subordinate clause : a group of words that has a subject and a verb, but does not express a complete thought. It cannot stand alone as a complete sentence.


Types of Sentence Structure


  • When we talk about the structure of sentences, they can be divided into three kinds.

    1. Simple
    2. Compound
    3. Complex


Simple Sentences

  • Simple sentences : have just one subject and one verb. They express only one complete thought.

    Example : A French Inventor made a type of computer.

    This is a simple sentence because :

    1. It has one subject
    2. It has one verb
    3. It also expresses only one complete thought.


Simple Sentences

  • Compound sentences : combine two or more independent clauses

    1. have two subjects
    2. Have two verbs
    3. joined by a coordinating conjunction and a comma or a semicolon.

    Example : My friends came to visit.They left early.

    Compound sentences : My friends came to visit, but they left early.

                                              My friends came to visit; they left early.


Punctuating Compound Sentences

  • If a compound sentence is formed by joining two independent clauses with a coordinating conjunction like "and", "or", or "but", a comma must always come before the coordinating conjunction.

    Friction makes meteors incredibly hot, and they burn up miles above earth.

  • If a compound sentence is formed by joining two very closely related independent clauses, they can be separated by a semicolon.

    Some large meteors don't burn up completely; they're called meteorites.

Like all sentences, compound sentences must have a period at the end!


 
Complex Sentences
  • A complex sentence is made up of an independent clause and one or more subordinate clauses. The subordinate clause in a complex sentence often tells why, when, where, what, or which one.

  • The independent and subordinate clauses each have a subject and verb!

    Example : Because someone had been careless with matches, a fire started at the Johnson's  home.(tells why)

                      Smoke filled the house as fire fighters arrived. (tells when)

                      The fire, which we saw spreading rapidly, shot sparks into the sky. (tells which one)

  • Punctuating a Complex Sentence

    • A subordinate clause that begins a complex sentence is usually followed by a comma.

      Example : Since we went to the park yesterday, I'd like to go to the zoo today.

    • A subordinate clause that comes at the end of a complex sentence is usually not preceded by a comma.

      Example : I'd like to go to the zoo today since we went to the park yesterday.

    • A subordinate clause that comes in the middle of a complex sentence is usually set off by commas.

      Example : The monkeys, who were swinging from vines, were hilarious!