For good writing you must have good grammar. Reading well writing books will help you develop good grammar. So will learning and practicing components of good grammar.


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Suppose your friend said to you, "I am went to your house." What did she mean? Is she going to your house, or did she already go?

When we talk to each other, we must use words in ways that the other person understands. When we write or talk, we need to be sure that everyone is using the same rules for speaking and writing.

We study grammar to learn these rules.

The word "Grammar" comes from a Greek word for writing. Correct grammar is very important for reading and writing. The first grades of school are sometimes called grammar schools.

The traditional grammar classifies the words based on 8 parts of speech.

The Noun, the Verb, the Adverb, the Pronoun, the Adjective, the Preposition, the Conjunction and the Interjection.

Each part of speech explains how the word is used; in fact the same word can be a noun in one sentence and a verb or an adjective in another.



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What is a noun?

A noun is a word used to name a person, place, animal, thing or an abstract idea.


  • Monica bought a nice pen.
  • Shelly went to Hollywood yesterday.
  • Lion is the king of beasts.
  • I cut vegetables with a knife.
  • The children screamed in joy.

Types of nouns:

Proper nouns:

Proper nouns always write with a capital letter. A proper noun represents the name of a specific person, place, or a thing. The names of the week - days, months, historical monuments, documents, institutions, organizations, holy books and religions are proper nouns.


  • George Washington was the first president of United States.
  • The Nile is a river in Egypt.

Common Nouns:

A common noun is a noun referring to a person, place, or a thing in general. You use a capital letter only when it begins a sentence.


  • The market town is 60 miles away.
  • My uncle came home last night.
  • My sister is very cute.

Abstract nouns:

An abstract noun is a noun, which names anything, which you cannot perceive through your five physical senses.


  • Childhood is bliss.
  • Children are shouting happily.
  • He could not control his anger.

Collective nouns:

A collective noun is a noun meaning a group of things, animals or persons. You need to be able to recognize a collective noun in order to maintain subject verb agreement.


  • The flock of sheep is grazing in the pasture.
  • The steering committee meets every Monday.
  • The class was startled by the bursting light bulb.



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A pronoun is a word, which replaces a noun. I, you, she, he, it, we, they are pronouns.

For Example, instead of saying Peter is a student, the pronoun he can be used in place of the noun Peter and the sentence becomes He is a student

You use pronouns very often, especially so that you do not have to keep on repeating a noun. A personal pronoun often refers to a person, so it is called as personal pronoun. Like nouns, personal pronouns sometimes have singular and plural forms (I-we, he-they).

Unlike Nouns, personal pronouns sometimes have different forms for male (masculine), female (feminine) and neuter (he-she-it).

In addition, unlike nouns, personal pronouns have different forms depending on if they act as subjects or objects (he-him, she-her).

A subject is a word, which does an action and usually comes before the verb, and an object is a word that receives an action and usually comes after the verb.

For Example, in the sentence "Yesterday Maria called her mother", Maria is the subject and mother is the object. The pronoun she can be used instead of Maria and the pronoun her can be used instead of mother.

The form of a personal pronoun also changes according to what person is referred to.

Person is used here as a grammar word and means:
1st person or the self (I, me, we),
2nd person or the person spoken to (you),
3rd person or the person spoken about (he, she, him, her, they, them).



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The verb is the most important part of a sentence. It expresses actions, events or states of being.

The verb is the heart of a sentence - every sentence must have a verb. Recognizing the verb is often the most important step in understanding the meaning of a sentence.

In the sentence, "The bird flew away", flew is the verb and the word, which shows the action of the sentence.

In the sentence, "The man is sitting on a chair", even though the action doesn't show much activity, sitting is the verb of the sentence.

In the sentence, "She is a smart girl", there is no action but a state of being expressed by the verb is.

Present Tense

Present tense:

The Present Tense tells what is happening now or what happens regularly.


  • I am singing.
  • My brother drinks only milk.
  • She understands me.

Past tense:

The Past Tense tells what already happened in the past. Many verbs form their Past Tense by adding -ed.


  • She met me.
  • I invited him for lunch.
  • Lisa plucked a flower.

Future tense:

The Future Tense of a verb tells what will happen tomorrow, next month, or any time to come (action or situation that will occur in the future). The Future Tense adds the helping verb WILL to the main verb.


  • I will come to school tomorrow.
  • He will sing a song.
  • My brother will come from London next month.



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An adverb can modify a verb, or an adjective (a phrase or a clause).

An adverb indicates manner, time, place cause and usually answers questions such as "how", "when", "where", "how much". Some adverbs can be identified by their characteristic "ly" suffix.

Example: She swam quickly to the shore.
                 He faced the enemy boldly.
                 They lived happily ever after.



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An adjective is a word, which modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, qualifying or identifying words. An adjective usually precedes a noun or a pronoun.

>> The tall doctor.
Here tall is used along with the noun doctor.

>> The red horse.
Here red is used along with the noun horse.

>> The black cat.
Here black is used along with the noun cat.

>> A rich man.
Here rich is used along with the noun man.

>> The huge bell.
Here huge is used along with the noun bell.

>> White uniform.
Here white is used along with the noun uniform.

>> An expensive watch.
Here expensive is used along with the noun watch.



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A preposition links or joins nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. For, in, before, behind, above, below are some prepositions.


  • The book is on the table.
  • The dog is lying under the bed.
  • The lamp is beside the bed.
  • She read the book after the class.
  • He is leaning against the wall.



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You use a conjunction to link words, phrases or clauses.


  • An apple and orange are fruits.
  • I ate the pizza and the burger.
  • She can sing but cannot dance.
  • Call the movers when you are ready.
  • Lilacs and violets are usually purple.



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An interjection is a word added to a sentence to convey emotion. It is not grammatically related to any other part of a sentence.


  • Oh! No, I forgot that the concert was today.
  • Hey! Put that down.
  • Ouch! You are hurting me.
  • Wow! It sounds great.



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Grammar - Articles

There are two kinds of Articles. Definite articles, and Indefinite articles. The definite article (THE) can be singular or plural. The indefinite article (A, AN) is always singular and cannot be used with a plural noun.


  • I am an English teacher.
  • I saw an elephant today.
  • I ate a Banana for breakfast.
  • I am a builder.

We use 'an' when the noun you are referring to begins with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) and we use 'a' when the noun you are referring to begins with a consonant.

If the next letter begins with a consonant sound when we say it, for example 'University' then we use 'a'. If the next letter begins with a vowel sound for example 'hour' then we say it, an hour.

We say 'a university' because we pronounce the 'U' with a 'Y' sound.
We say 'hour' with a silent H as though it were spelt our.
So an hour is correct.

We use 'the' when you are talking about a particular person or thing.


  • The Apple you are eating is rotten.
  • Did you lock the house?

You should also use 'the' when you have already mentioned the thing you are talking about.


  • She has got two children, a girl and a boy.
  • The girl is 8 and the boy is 10.

When we talk about geographical facts on the globe or names of rivers, oceans and seas, we use 'the'.


  • The North Pole
  • The Equator
  • The Nile
  • The Pacific Ocean
  • The Weather Channel

We also use 'the' before certain nouns when we know there is only one of a particular thing.


  • The sun
  • The moon
  • The earth


Links to other sites on Grammar

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Noun http://www.rhlschool.com/eng6n4.htm
Verb http://www.rhlschool.com/eng3n2.htm
Adverb http://www.abcteach.com/grammar/adverbs2.htm
Pronoun http://www.abcteach.com/grammar/pronouns.htm
Adjective http://www2.actden.com/writ_den/tips/sentence/adjectiv.htm
Preposition http://www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/
Conjunction http://www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/
Interjection http://www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/
Articles http://depts.gallaudet.edu/englishworks/
Parts of Speech http://www.abcteach.com/directory/

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