Canada Geography

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So you want to know about Canada? Here are some highlights! Also check out the links to other sites about Canada.

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Key Facts

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Canadian Flag Canada is the second largest country in the world, smaller only to Russia.

Population: 28 million people

Geographic size: 3.9 million square miles

Capital: Ottawa

Major cities and population: Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, Winnipeg, Halifax


Geographic Landmarks

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MountainsCanada has a very large and diverse range of geographic features. Canada is divided into 10 provinces and 2 territories. Canada stretches from the Pacific Ocean on the west, to the Atlantic Ocean on the east. Northern Canada reaches into the Arctic Circle, while southern Canada stretches below the northern points of the United States.

Canada has a very small population, 28 million people, for its geographic size. Much of Canada is still wilderness, cover by forests. The Rocky Mountains cover a major part of western Canada -- British Columbia, the Yukon Territory, and the western part of Alberta.

West-central Canada is mostly prairie, consisting of large grain farms.

Fishing BoatsThe east-central part of Canada are the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. These are major population and industrial areas.

The Maritime provinces on the east coast rely very heavily on the Atlantic Ocean for their way of life.


Points of Interest

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Wild LifeThe majority of Canada is still wilderness. This makes Canada a popular spot for hunting and fishing.

Niagara Falls is one of Canada's best known tourist attractions. It is the largest falls in the world, measured in volume of water.

Polar BearMost of Canada's northern islands are located inside the Arctic Circle.


Major Industries

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The industry varies as you look across Canada. British Columbia, on the west coast, has historically relied on natural resources such as mining and timber. Manufacturing is now becoming much more important to the economy. Alberta has benefited from considerable natural resources including oil and natural gas. It is also rich in minerals such as zinc, silver, nickel and uranium.

The prairie provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and parts of Alberta produce more than 20% of the world's wheat. Other forms of farming and cattle also contribute to the economy.

Ontario and Quebec are the industrial center of Canada. They have a wide variety of manufactured goods. The lower part of Ontario also has very rich farm land, with many orchards. This Niagara area is also known for its wine production.

The maritime provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland rely heavily on fishing and natural resources such as timber. Prince Edward Island is also well now for its potatoes.


Historical Highlights

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Native Americans lived in Canada for thousands of years. In the early 1600s, colonists from Britain and France began to settle in eastern Canada, along the St. Lawrence River. Canada proved to be an excellent spot for trapping and trading of furs. In the 1800s, settlers began to push west. Most of the native Americans were displaced by the Europeans.


Population and Culture

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Both English and French still play a significant role in Canada, with both being official languages. Most of Quebec and parts of eastern Canada are still heavily influenced by their French origins. Much of the rest of Canada is English origin. Canada has also had significant immigration from other European countries such as Germany, Italy and the Ukraine. There are also many immigrants from Asia. The Canadian Government tries very hard to maintain a multi-cultural environment, encouraging people to maintain their heritage.

Most of Canada's population lives within 100 miles of the border with the United States. About 75% of the population lives in major cities or towns.



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With Canada being so large, the climate varies considerably throughout the country. Canada is generally known for its cold winters and hot, but short, summers.
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